The Common Lisp Cookbook – Files and Directories

Note: In this chapter, we use mainly namestrings to specify filenames. The issue of pathnames needs to be covered separately.

Many functions will come from uiop, so we suggest you have a look directly at it:

Of course, do not miss:

Testing whether a file exists

Use the function probe-file which will return a generalized boolean - either nil if the file doesn’t exists, or its truename (which might be different from the argument you supplied).

edi@bird:/tmp> ln -s /etc/passwd foo
edi@bird:/tmp> cmucl
; Loading #p"/home/edi/.cmucl-init".
CMU Common Lisp 18d-pre, level-1 built 2002-01-15 on maftia1, running on bird
Send questions to and bug reports to
Loaded subsystems:
Python native code compiler, target Intel x86
CLOS based on PCL version:  September 16 92 PCL (f)
Gray Streams Protocol Support
CLX X Library MIT R5.02
* (probe-file "/etc/passwd")

* (probe-file "foo")

* (probe-file "bar")


Creating directories

The function ensure-directories-exist creates the directories if they do not exist:

(ensure-directories-exist "foo/bar/baz/")

This may create foo, bar and baz. Don’t forget the trailing slash.

Opening a file

Common Lisp has open and close functions which resemble the functions of the same denominator from other programming languages you’re probably familiar with. However, it is almost always recommendable to use the macro with-open-file instead. Not only will this macro open the file for you and close it when you’re done, it’ll also take care of it if your code leaves the body abnormally (such as by a use of throw). A typical use of with-open-file looks like this:

(with-open-file (str <_file-spec_>
    :direction <_direction_>
    :if-exists <_if-exists_>
    :if-does-not-exist <_if-does-not-exist_>)
  <_your code here_>)
  • str is a variable which’ll be bound to the stream which is created by opening the file.
  • <_file-spec_> will be a truename or a pathname.
  • <_direction_> is usually :input (meaning you want to read from the file), :output (meaning you want to write to the file) or :io (which is for reading and writing at the same time) - the default is :input.
  • <_if-exists_> specifies what to do if you want to open a file for writing and a file with that name already exists - this option is ignored if you just want to read from the file. The default is :error which means that an error is signalled. Other useful options are :supersede (meaning that the new file will replace the old one), nil (the stream variable will be bound to nil), and :rename (i.e. the old file is renamed).
  • <_if-does-not-exist_> specifies what to do if the file you want to open does not exist. It is one of :error for signalling an error, :create for creating an empty file, or nil for binding the stream variable to nil. The default is, to be brief, to do the right thing depending on the other options you provided. See the CLHS for details.

Note that there are a lot more options to with-open-file. See the CLHS entry for open for all the details. You’ll find some examples on how to use with-open-file below. Also note that you usually don’t need to provide any keyword arguments if you just want to open an existing file for reading.

Reading a file into a string or a list of lines

It’s quite common to need to access the contents of a file in string form, or to get a list of lines.

uiop is included in ASDF (there is no extra library to install or system to load) and has the following functions:

(uiop:read-file-string "file.txt")


(uiop:read-file-lines "file.txt")

Otherwise, this can be achieved by using read-line or read-char functions, that probably won’t be the best solution. File might not be divided into multiple lines or reading one character at a time might bring significant performance problems. To solve this problems, you can read files using buckets of specific sizes.

(with-output-to-string (out)
  (with-open-file (in "/path/to/big/file")
    (loop with buffer = (make-array 8192 :element-type 'character)
          for n-characters = (read-sequence buffer in)
          while (< 0 n-characters)
          do (write-sequence buffer out :start 0 :end n-characters)))))

Furthermore, you’re free to change the format of the read/written data, instead of using elements of type character everytime. For instance, you can set :element-type type argument of with-output-to-string, with-open-file and make-array functions to '(unsigned-byte 8) to read data in octets.

Reading with an utf-8 encoding

To avoid an ASCII stream decoding error you might want to specify an UTF-8 encoding:

(with-open-file (in "/path/to/big/file"
                     :external-format :utf-8)

Set SBCL’s default encoding format to utf-8

Sometimes you don’t control the internals of a library, so you’d better set the default encoding to utf-8. Add this line to your ~/.sbclrc:

(setf sb-impl::*default-external-format* :utf-8)

and optionnally

(setf sb-alien::*default-c-string-external-format* :utf-8)

Reading a file one line at a time

read-line will read one line from a stream (which defaults to standard input) the end of which is determined by either a newline character or the end of the file. It will return this line as a string without the trailing newline character. (Note that read-line has a second return value which is true if there was no trailing newline, i.e. if the line was terminated by the end of the file.) read-line will by default signal an error if the end of the file is reached. You can inhibit this by supplying NIL as the second argument. If you do this, read-line will return nil if it reaches the end of the file.

(with-open-file (stream "/etc/passwd")
  (do ((line (read-line stream nil)
       (read-line stream nil)))
       ((null line))
       (print line)))

You can also supply a third argument which will be used instead of nil to signal the end of the file:

(with-open-file (stream "/etc/passwd")
  (loop for line = (read-line stream nil 'foo)
   until (eq line 'foo)
   do (print line)))

Reading a file one character at a time

read-char is similar to read-line, but it only reads one character as opposed to one line. Of course, newline characters aren’t treated differently from other characters by this function.

(with-open-file (stream "/etc/passwd")
  (do ((char (read-char stream nil)
       (read-char stream nil)))
       ((null char))
       (print char)))

Looking one character ahead

You can ‘look at’ the next character of a stream without actually removing it from there - this is what the function peek-char is for. It can be used for three different purposes depending on its first (optional) argument (the second one being the stream it reads from): If the first argument is nil, peek-char will just return the next character that’s waiting on the stream:

CL-USER> (with-input-from-string (stream "I'm not amused")
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (peek-char nil stream))
           (print (read-char stream))


If the first argument is T, peek-char will skip whitespace characters, i.e. it will return the next non-whitespace character that’s waiting on the stream. The whitespace characters will vanish from the stream as if they had been read by read-char:

CL-USER> (with-input-from-string (stream "I'm not amused")
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (peek-char t stream))
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (read-char stream))


If the first argument to peek-char is a character, the function will skip all characters until that particular character is found:

CL-USER> (with-input-from-string (stream "I'm not amused")
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (peek-char #\a stream))
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (read-char stream))


Note that peek-char has further optional arguments to control its behaviour on end-of-file similar to those for read-line and read-char (and it will signal an error by default):

CL-USER> (with-input-from-string (stream "I'm not amused")
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (peek-char #\d stream))
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (peek-char nil stream nil 'the-end))


You can also put one character back onto the stream with the function unread-char. You can use it as if, after you have read a character, you decide that you’d better used peek-char instead of read-char:

CL-USER> (with-input-from-string (stream "I'm not amused")
           (let ((c (read-char stream)))
             (print c)
             (unread-char c stream)
             (print (read-char stream))


Note that the front of a stream doesn’t behave like a stack: You can only put back exactly one character onto the stream. Also, you must put back the same character that has been read previously, and you can’t unread a character if none has been read before.

Random access to a File

Use the function file-position for random access to a file. If this function is used with one argument (a stream), it will return the current position within the stream. If it’s used with two arguments (see below), it will actually change the file position in the stream.

CL-USER> (with-input-from-string (stream "I'm not amused")
           (print (file-position stream))
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (file-position stream))
           (file-position stream 4)
           (print (file-position stream))
           (print (read-char stream))
           (print (file-position stream))


Writing content to a file

With with-open-file, specify :direction :output and use write-sequence inside:

(with-open-file (f <pathname> :direction :output
                              :if-exists :supersede
                              :if-does-not-exist :create)
    (write-sequence s f)))

If the file exists, you can also :append content to it.

If it doesn’t exist, you can :error out. See the standard for more details.

The library str has a shortcut:

(str:to-file "file.txt" content) ;; with optional options

Getting file attributes (size, access time,…), with the Osicat library

Osicat (in Quicklisp) is a lightweight operating system interface for Common Lisp on POSIX-like systems, including Windows. With Osicat we can get and set environment variables, manipulate files and directories, pathnames and a bit more.

Once it is installed, Osicat also defines the osicat-posix system, which permits us to get file attributes.

(ql:quickload :osicat)

(let ((stat (osicat-posix:stat #P"./")))
  (osicat-posix:stat-size stat))  ;; => 10629

We can get the other attributes with the following methods:


Listing files and directories

Some functions below return pathnames, so you might need the following:

(namestring #p"/foo/bar/baz.txt")           ==> "/foo/bar/baz.txt"
(directory-namestring #p"/foo/bar/baz.txt") ==> "/foo/bar/"
(file-namestring #p"/foo/bar/baz.txt")      ==> "baz.txt"

Listing files in a directory

(uiop:directory-files "./")

Returns a list of pathnames:


Listing sub-directories

(uiop:subdirectories "./")

Finding files matching a pattern

Below we simply list files of a directory and check that their name contains a given string.

(remove-if-not (lambda (it)
                   (search "App" (namestring it)))
               (uiop:directory-files "./"))

We used namestring to convert a pathname to a string, thus a sequence that search can deal with.

Finding files with a wildcard

We can not transpose unix wildcards to portable Common Lisp.

In pathname strings we can use * and ** as wildcards. This works in absolute and relative pathnames.

(directory #P"*.jpg")
(directory #P"**/*.png")

Change the default pathname

The concept of . denoting the current directory does not exist in portable Common Lisp. This may exist in specific filesystems and specific implementations.

Also ~ to denote the home directory does not exist. They may be recognized by some implementations as non-portable extensions.

*default-pathname-defaults*provides a default for some pathname operations.

(let ((*default-pathname-defaults* (pathname "/bin/")))
          (directory "*sh"))
(#P"/bin/zsh" #P"/bin/tcsh" #P"/bin/sh" #P"/bin/ksh" #P"/bin/csh" #P"/bin/bash")

See also (user-homedir-pathname).

Page source: